Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracEnvironment


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Jul 23, 2018, 10:51:51 AM (15 months ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
Modified
  • TracEnvironment

    v1 v2  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     7Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    68
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
     9Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     10
     11== Creating an Environment
     12
     13A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     14{{{#!sh
    915$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1016}}}
    1117
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     18`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1519
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system. Also, it seems that project names
    21 with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).''
     20=== Useful Tips
    2221
    23 == Database Connection Strings ==
     22 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    2423
    25 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    26 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    27 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    28 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    29 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    30 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     24 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     25 
     26 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    3127
    32 === Embedded SQLite Connection String ===
    33 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     28 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     29
     30 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by specifying a configuration file at the time the environment is created, using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     31
     32{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     33**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     34
     35This is a common beginners' mistake.
     36It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     37}}}
     38
     39== Database Connection Strings
     40
     41You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     42
     43Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     44
     45=== SQLite Connection String
     46
     47The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3448{{{
    3549sqlite:db/trac.db
    3650}}}
     51where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3752
    38 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    39 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    40 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    41 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    42 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     53=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     54
     55The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4356{{{
    4457postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4558}}}
    46 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    4759
    48 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     60If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    4961{{{
    5062postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5163}}}
    5264
    53 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    54 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     65On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5566{{{
    5667postgres://user:password@/database
    5768}}}
     69
    5870or a specific one:
    5971{{{
     
    6173}}}
    6274
    63 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    64 `trac-admin initenv`.
    65 
    6675See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    67 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    68 {{{
    69 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    70 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    71 }}}
    72 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    73 
    74 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    75 {{{
    76 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    77 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     76Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     77{{{#!sh
     78$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     79$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    7880}}}
    7981
    80 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     82When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     83
     84Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     85{{{#!sh
     86$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     87$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     88}}}
     89
     90Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8191{{{
    8292postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    8393}}}
    8494
    85 === MySQL Connection String ===
     95=== MySQL Connection String
    8696
    87 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    88 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    89 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    90 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     97The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    9198{{{
    9299mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    93100}}}
    94101
    95 == Source Code Repository ==
     102== Source Code Repository
    96103
    97 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    98 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
     104A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    99105
    100 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    101 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
     106There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    102107
    103 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    104 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    105 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    106 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     108== Directory Structure
    107109
    108 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
    109 {{{
    110 [trac]
    111 repository_type = svn
    112 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    113 }}}
    114 
    115 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    116 {{{
    117 [trac]
    118 repository_type = svn
    119 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    120 }}}
    121 
    122 == Directory Structure ==
    123 
    124 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     110An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    125111
    126112 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    127  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    128  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     113 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     114 * `files`
     115  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    129116 * `conf`
    130    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     117  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
    131118 * `db`
    132    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    133  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    134  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    135  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs, since [milestone:0.10])
    136  * `templates` - Custom ClearSilver environment-specific templates. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    137    * `site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.
    138    * `site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.
    139    * `site_header.cs` - Custom page header.
    140  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    141    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    142  * `wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [WikiMacros Wiki macros]. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    143 
    144   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    145 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    146 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     119  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     120 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     121 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     122 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     123 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     124  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    147125
    148126----